The term “survival” includes a set of knowledge and techniques that allow a person to survive in extreme conditions with a minimum set of tools and things. Extreme situations are when a person gets lost in the forest, finds himself in a natural disaster, etc. In these difficult times, you can expect anything, even terrorist attacks, from which you may have to hide.
Such situations require knowledge and special skills from a person and the presence of any household items. Otherwise, a very disastrous outcome awaits a person.
Some people are always faced with similar conditions due to their profession or living in a particular area. In such cases, a person should always carry a unique, minimum survival kit.
All professional military personnel take survival courses and are aware of the “emergency suitcase.” This is a unique bag or backpack that stores household appliances and items needed in the field. The military takes this suitcase with them in the event of an alarm to carry out particular tasks designed to be carried out in places far from civilization.
Almost all Japan residents are ready for extreme situations, and they always have a backpack with essentials. Moreover, it is not hidden somewhere but is located not far from the front door. The backpack contains:
- A supply of food for 3 days.
- Copies of all documents found on an electronic carrier, as well as a certain amount of money.
This is because Japan is located in a zone of increased seismic activity. Earthquakes and tsunamis are fairly common occurrences in this country. When the next alarm is announced, the Japanese immediately grab their backpacks and run out into the street.
We can talk about some basic survival kit, which includes a particular set of items that allows a person to hold out for some time before help arrives. This set of objects can be conditional since much depends on how a person may find himself. If you just get lost in the woods, you may need a minimum survival kit. But if you get lost in the dense taiga, then the minimum set is not enough.
There are, somewhat tentatively, two categories of survival kits. For example:
- The first category is a large set that fits in a medium-sized backpack. These backpacks are not easy to carry, so they can be in the trunks of cars or elsewhere and wait in the wings.
- The second category represents wearable emergency supplies (NAZs), which are designed for daily wear. In the west, they are called EDC sets (every day carry). The difference between NAZs and EDC kits is that NAZs are designed for survival in the wild, while EDC kits are designed for survival in modern megacities.
Survival kits include very different items, depending on the conditions of the area or time of year in which a person may be. The characteristics of each person are of no small importance. The human factor’s peculiarities include the presence of various diseases or the tendency of the human body to allergies. In this regard, it is necessary to count on expanding the components included in the survival kit. Despite this, there is a concept of a standard survival kit that makes sense to talk about. In other words, some objects or tools cannot be dispensed with in any case.
First, the backpack must be reliable and durable, as well as waterproof. You will immediately have to give up cheap Chinese backpacks, stitched with rotten threads that stick out in all directions. Be that as it may, but one must count that this backpack can and should save a person’s life. Therefore, the quality of the backpack comes first. As a rule, you should opt for a medium-sized backpack: it is unlikely that everything will fit in a small backpack. If you take a large backpack, then it can be a real burden in extreme situations, when every calorie counts for a person. The best option is a backpack with a volume of 50 liters. Another important factor: the backpack should not attract attention. It should have a subtle, discreet color: it is unknown what conditions a person may find himself in. If you have to run away from terrorists
A backpack from Maxpedishen and other similar manufacturers, despite their quality, is better not to use. For such purposes, army backpacks are also not suitable since they do not have the necessary attributes. If you take the most ordinary tourist backpack, then this is the best option. But even here, it is essential to pay the main attention to quality.
Survival food: requirements
You can survive without anything, but without food, a person will not survive for sure, especially at first. Therefore, it is essential to have a food supply for three days until a person can navigate in real conditions.
Food items included in survival kits must meet a number of requirements. For example:
- Food should be high in calories.
- It should not deteriorate for a long time.
- Take up little space and have minimal weight.
Only one type of product meets such requirements – products preserved by the freeze-drying method. This is a process that contains 2 stages – freezing and drying. Because they are not subjected to heat treatment, they retain all their nutritional properties. Also, they significantly lose in volume and weight.
Shoes in an emergency
Shoes for extreme situations should also be chosen correctly. Since you have to move a lot, and even with a backpack, you won’t get very far in uncomfortable shoes. Even worse, if the leg is injured, the person will lose mobility, which is fraught with severe consequences. In such a situation, it is not worth saving. This is especially true if a person enters a mountainous area. A good option is trekking boots that securely fix the ankle, protecting it from dislocations, and a thick sole can protect the feet from sharp objects. Despite the apparent bulk, they are not heavy, but at the same time very reliable and durable.
Set of clothes
It is quite natural that clothes should be selected depending on the season. Despite this, the principle of completing a spare kit does not depend on any factors.
- Underwear should only be made from natural materials, except socks. It is better to take socks with artificial threads so that they last longer.
- The presence of thermal underwear, the task of which is to remove sweat from the surface of the human body, is not necessary, although, without it, it will be difficult. As a rule, thermal underwear is sewn from unique artificial fabrics. Sweat-wicking allows the body to retain heat by keeping the body surface dry. This is very important, especially in conditions of long transitions and low temperatures.
- Fleece clothing, although made from synthetics, has excellent heat retention characteristics. It also breathes, and is pleasant to the touch, and fits the body tightly. Therefore, the survival kit should include fleece pants and a jacket.
- Thick jacket, with long sleeves and a hood, and tight trousers, sewn from both natural and synthetic fabrics (mix). In other words, the jacket and trousers must be durable and reliable.
Knife or multitool
Naturally, in such situations, a knife will never be superfluous, and it is even better that there are 3 knives for all occasions. One knife can be of the multitool type, making it possible to have a whole set of the necessary tools at hand. The second knife is folding, and the third is durable, like a fix or mora. Naturally, this is ideal, so you need to have at least one knife, preferably a folding one.
A small tourist hatchet will do, which can help save lives in dangerous situations. He will also help to make a fire in a timely manner to not freeze in such conditions. This is the second tool after the knife, which is challenging to do without.
Today, you can count on the purchase of a ready-made, factory-made filter, both domestic and imported. Naturally, a factory filter or device is an additional usable space, which may not be enough in such conditions. Also, water purification is possible with special tablets, such as “Aquatab,” “Aquabriz”, “Portable Aqua”, etc. It would help if you did not also forget that you can purify water using potassium permanganate and the simplest and most affordable way – by boiling.
The need for dishes
If we consider that every cubic centimeter counts, it makes no sense to talk about dishes.
According to the general military principle, it is best to use a small marching set, which consists of a kettle with a volume of up to 1.5 liters, a lid, and a mug inside the kettle. The work of the face is about 0.8 liters.
How can you light a fire
In this case, ordinary matches will help, but they must be placed in a plastic bag and sealed hermetically not to get damp. It is better to seal each box separately. The matches are lightweight and don’t take up much space. Then you can use the matchboxes as needed. It is better if there is another option for lighting a fire – flint, with which you can get sparks and get fire using flammable materials. They can be easily found in the forest: dry birch bark, dry moss, fluff, dry grass, etc. Learning to use a flint is not so difficult.
The presence of light (lighting)
In such cases, it is better to have a flashlight that does not shine from batteries or accumulators but from a built-in generator, which is powered by a unique handle. For the operation of this device, it is enough to use physical force. Recently, LED flashlights have become very popular, as they consume much less energy than conventional bulbs. Even on batteries, such lighting devices work for a long time. In any case, if there is an alternative light source, then this is a big plus.
SURVIVALIST’S FIRST AID KIT
An essential component of a survival kit, especially if any chronic ailments require regular medication. If there are no such problems, then the first aid kit should include:
- Sterile bandage. It is better to have several packages of different sizes.
- A rubber band that can come in handy in cases of serious injury with severe bleeding. The rubber band is designed to stop bleeding. At the same time, you need to be able to use it: the tourniquet is applied for a time, no more than 2 hours, otherwise you can lose a limb.
- Hydrogen peroxide, for mechanical disinfection of open wounds.
- Chlorhexidine bigluconate 0.005%. It is also used to disinfect open wounds by irrigation.
- Iodine and brilliant green. They are used to treat small wounds or their edges.
- Activated charcoal in the form of tablets, which quickly removes toxins from the body in case of poisoning.
- Aspirin tablets will protect the body in case of a cold.
- Ibuprofen or ketanol as a pain reliever.
- Adhesive plaster.
A rope, moreover, healthy, up to 3 meters long, will not interfere. In situations like this, it is essential to have a string because often you have to tie something up, fasten something, etc. With the help of a string, you can quickly equip temporary housing. It is often difficult to overcome a small rise or lift